The Progressive Era: 1890-1920 Goals of the Progressive Movement: Protecting social welfare Promoting moral improvement Creating economic reform Fostering efficiency Working Conditions Florence Kelley Florence Kelley persuaded Illinois to ban child labor in 1893. 150,000 annually; each country was given a quota based on the proportion that the number of persons of that “national origin” residing in the US bore to the total American population in 1920,Decline in moderate unionism, such as the American Federation of Labor,Activities of the radical wing of American labor were curbed by the anticommunist campaign of the federal and state governments during the post-WWI period,prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol,passed over Wilson’s veto, provided the machinery for implementing the Eighteenth Amendment,Extensive smuggling of liquor and bootlegging gangs like those of Al Capone and Dion O’Banion arose,Stemmed from the success of the 1917 communist revolution in Russia,In the fall of 1919 Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer authorized raids on both acknowledged and alleged communists, arresting more than 4000 people, many of of whom were held in violation of their constitutional rights,In 1920 the two Italian men were found guilty of murdering a paymaster and a guard in the course of a robbery despite inconclusive evidence; they were both executed in 1927,forced large numbers of Americans to reappraise their fears of radical views and those who held them,Founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 by William Joseph Simmons; took firm root in Deep South,Drew membership from villages and small towns unaffected by immigration, industrialization, and liberal thought of modern America,Anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic, and antiforeigner sentiments added in the 1920s,Became a force in the presidential races of 1924 and 1928,At the height of its activity in the mid-1920’s, membership reached 4 million,William Jennings Bryan urged state legislatures to prohibit teaching theory of evolution in public schools,John T. Scopes, a young teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, was indicted in a test case for presenting the evolutionary theory to his high-school biology class,Scopes was found guilty of violating the state law and fine $100 that was never actually paid,Weaknesses of fundamentalist beliefs in opposition to modern science were exposed and the fundamentalist cause steadily declined,General Motors Corporation, Ford, and Chrysler Corporation dominated American automobile manufacturing,Gave people true mobility, standardizes customs and manners, bringing rural and urban areas closer together,Created the industry of tourism and stimulated growth of steel and rubber industries,Charles A. Lindbergh made a 33-and-a-half-hour solo flight across the Atlantic in his airplane,Impelled Americans to focus on the vast possibilities of aviation, propelling the US into the air age,Viennese physician Sigmund Freud’s theories maintained that mental illness originated in the repression of sexuality and focused on investigating the subconscious,Sex became a respectable topic for consideration,Transition of photography into an art form,Commanding figure was Alfred Stieglitz (portraits of wife Georgia O’Keefe, views of Manhattan, studies of clouds),Literature (Realism and the Lost Generation),a man’s ruinous quest for wealth and social position,Pound and Eliot’s styles became standards for other poets, using intricate language and abstruse references,decisive break with the content and form of the nineteenth-century poetry,Influential playwright who experimented with realism and naturalism to characterize American drama,Flourishing of culture among black Americans, predominantly in New York City,Writers: James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, and Langston Hughes,Newspapers and magazines catered to special-interest readership; used photographs and illustrations,Music made contributions of musical comedy and jazz,Writers: Vincent Youmans, Jerome Kern, and George Gershwin,Jazz aka ragtime: characterized by syncopated rhythm and contrapuntal ensemble playing, the interspersing of vocal renditions with instrumental performance, and improvisation of the players,Scott Joplin (ragtime pianist); W.C. Hangy (blues composer),Bessie Smith, Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong, Leon Bismarck “Bix” Beiderbecke,Hollywood developed into the movie center of the world,Presidential election returns in 1920 was the first major public event to be broadcast,1926 National Broadcasting Company was established,Millions of listeners tuned in to the same programs,greater uniformity in customs and manners than ever before,“golden age”: Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Rogers Hornsby,“golden age” as well: William Harrison “Jack” Dempsey became one of the most celebrated heavyweight boxing champions,American Professional Football Association (later National Football League in 1922) was established in the early 1920’s,increasing popularity of golf transformed the once highly exclusive country club into a relatively common,https://docs.google.com/document/d/1cQOnu5GwOLH-q4dfPsxxDFZx80KNXF9nfDxykOuwiDM/pub.
The Progressive Era. How did progressive era reforms affect women? : Supreme Court ruled that not all provisions of the Constitution need apply to those who lived under the American flag but outside the continental boundaries of the U.S. (regarding overseas possessions acquired by the Spanish-American War in 1898 like Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Cuba),: Signed by Democrat Woodrow Wilson, favored a steady progression toward ultimate independence for the Philippines,Established the Philippines temporarily as a commonwealth, with the provision that complete independence would be granted in 1946,1. 128 American lives were lost. 3. This event caused Wilson to send an ultimatum to Germany: to end unrestricted submarine warfare or risk losing all diplomatic relations with the U.S.National Security League, the American Defense Society, and the American Rights committee.- Many organizations and leaders began to campaign for greater military readiness. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s. This was the first cabinet to go to jail for dishonoring his office.Harding suddenly died of a stroke on August 2, 1923 and VP Calvin Coolidge was thrust into the presidency.Landslide victory for Coolidge - big advantage to the Republicans were the prosperous times,Declared that all signatories renounced war as an instrument of national policy and agreed to settle all disputes among themselves by peaceful means,Proved ineffective because of the lack of enforcement.Hoover enjoyed a landslide victory, winning the electoral votes of 40 states, because the American people were in no mood to break the great prosperity induced by Republican rule.The mechanization of agriculture lead to the decline of agricultural prices in the market,: created a Federal Farm Board authorized to extend low-interest loans to agricultural cooperatives; attempted to prevent low farm prices from falling to ruinous levels through the storage of surplus crops,Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930): highest rates in the nation’s history,33 foreign countries retaliated against the high rates by increasing their rates on American products,Significant increase of wages in most industries,Agricultural profits lagged far behind industrial profits,Wages of factory workers were increasing but not nearly so rapidly as the prices of manufactured goods,Factories and farms were producing more than American and foreign customers could buy, while the high tariff was curtailing overseas market,Consumers were buying an increasing amount of goods on installment,Large portion of the annual national income was being invested in highly speculative manufacturing, mining, and transportation enterprises,October 24, 1929 (Black Thursday): 13 million shares were traded,October 29,1929 (Black Tuesday): 16 million shares were sold; worst day in history of New York stock market,Collapse of the New York Stock Exchange was the prelude to economic disaster,Feeling of political isolationism and economic nationalism was exceedingly strong,Participated in League of Nations international conferences,this cycle of money from U.S. loans to Germany, which made reparations to other European nations, who paid off their debts to the United States, locked the western world's economy into that of the U.S,Washington Conference (November 1921 to February 1922): US, Great Britain, France, and Japan would respect one another’s possessions in the Pacific and confer in the event that any issue threatened to disrupt harmonious relations in the area,Political independence and territorial integrity of China and reaffirmed support of the open-door policy,: the US would not recognize any agreement that impaired the political independence or territorial integrity of China or that adversely affect the open-door policy,Clark Memorandum: clarified the interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1928,declared that the US would not again claim the right to intervene in the internal affairs of a Latin American country,repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine,Blacks showed newfound dignity; women enjoyed increased independence,Strict conservation policies greatly limited use for liquor production and gave impetus to the success of the long drive for prohibition,Crossword puzzles, mah-jongg, bell-bottomed trousers, long raccoon coats; “the bee’s knees”, “the cat’s meow”, “flapper”, and “speakeasy”,Migrated to the North for work during the War,Blacks in the North enjoyed political rights such as voting and running for office but was still economically and socially discriminated,: founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914; espoused worldwide black unity and emphasized the worth and glory of African civilization,dismissed efforts to achieve integration and advocated a back-to-Africa program,Voted in large numbers in the presidential election of 1920,New opportunities in employment (writers, editors, realty agents),Introduction and developing general use of electrical housekeeping appliances,Rapid increase in commercial bakeries eliminated necessity to make own pastries,: passed over Wilson’s veto, required immigrants to be able to read and write a language, whether English or another,limited immigration from Europe in any one year to 3% of the number of each nationality resident in the US according to the 1910 census,limited immigration from Europe in any one year to 2% of the number of each nationality resident in the US according to the census of 1890; drastically reduced the quotas of immigrants coming from eastern and southern Europe; totally prohibited immigration from Asia,: total number of immigrants from outside the Western Hemisphere was restricted to appx.
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